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Official: Russianvariably recognized: Abaza, Adyghe, Aghul, Altai, Avar, Azerbaijani, Bashkir, Buryat, Chechen, Cherkess, Chuvash, Crimean Tatar, Dargwa, Erzya, Ingush, Kabardian, Kalmyk, Karachay-Balkar, Khakas, Komi, Kumyk, Lak, Lezgi, Mari, Moksha, Nogai, Ossetic, Rutul, Tabasaran, Tatar, Tsakhur, Tuvan, Udmurt, Ukrainian, Yakutalso spoken: 100 indigenous languages, English, and German Russia can't be understood by mind, Nor measured by common yardstick.Russian identity can be traced to the Middle Ages, with its first state known as Kievan Rus and its religion rooted in Byzantine Christianity adopted from Constantinople. Peter The Great established the Russian Empire in 1721, although the Romanov dynasty had been in power since 1613.
Following Lenin's death in 1924, a power struggle among the Bolshevik leadership ensued, with Josef Stalin emerging as the new leader of the Communist Party and dictator of the USSR.
In his years in power, Lenin used the Red Army, the internal security apparatus, and the Communist Party leadership to arrest and execute many opponents of the nascent regime, and redistribute land that have long been owned by the large land owners to peasants who work in it (Collectivisation of agriculture would not take place until 1928).
After the Civil War, Lenin adopted a New Economic Policy, which allowed certain sectors to be denationalized, as well as cancelling the practice of grain requisitioning that was widely used in wartime, as well as a loosening of political and cultural controls.
Following a brief interim government headed by social democrat Alexander Kerensky, the Bolshevik faction of the Communist Party under Marxist Vladimir Lenin seized power, with the money provided by the German establishement, withdrew Russia from the war, and launched a purge of clerics, political dissidents, aristocrats, the bourgeoise, and the wealthy independent farmers.
A brutal civil war between the "Red Army" of the communist leadership and the "White Army" largely consisting of foreign interventionists back by Britain, Germany and France lasted until late 1920.
The occasional attempts by the Romanovs and the privileged classes to reform society and ameliorate the condition of the underclasses invariably ended in failure.
Russia entered World War 1 in the union of the Triple Entente; like other European Empires with catastrophic results for itself.
One of Russia's most charismatic and forceful leaders, Peter built the foundations of empire on a centralized political culture and promoted "westernization" of the nation.
As part of this effort he moved the capital from the history rich city of Moscow to Saint Petersburg, a city built at a great expense and by a great effort of the Russian people.
At the conclusion of the Second World War/The Great Patriotic war, the USSR imposed many puppet communist governements in its “zone of influence” causing millions of deaths in prisons and labour camps in the first decade after the war.
Shortly after the end of the conflict, started a rivalry beteen western powers and USSR, called “Cold War”.
Deposed and held under house arrest, Nicholas, Alexandra, and their children -- and with them the Romanov dynasty -- were exterminated by gunfire in the basement of a Yekaterinburg manor house and buried in unmarked graves which were found later and reburied in the Saint Paul and Peter Cathedral in Saint Petersburg.